## Programs by Campus

### Bloomington

#### Physics

##### Courses

- PHYS-P 441 Analytical Mechanics I (3 cr.)

- PHYS-P 453 Introduction to Quantum Physics (3 cr.)

- PHYS-P 454 Modern Physics (4 cr.)

- PHYS-P 460 Modern Optics (4 cr.) P: P331 or consent of instructor. Physical optics and electromagnetic waves based on electromagnetic theory, wave equations; phase and group velocity; dispersion; coherence; interference; diffraction; polarization of light and of electromagnetic radiation generally; wave guides; holography; masers and lasers; introduction to optical spectroscopy.

- PHYS-P 500 Seminar (1 cr.) Reports on current literature. Graduate students and staff participate.

- PHYS-P 504 Practicum in Physics Laboratory Instruction (1 cr.) Practical aspects of teaching physics labs. Meets the week before classes and one hour per week during the semester to discuss goals, effective teaching techniques, grading standards, AI-student relations, and administrative procedures as applied to P201. Students enrolling in this course teach a section of P201 laboratory.

- PHYS-P 506 Electricity and Magnetism I (4 cr.) Three hours of lectures and one hour of recitation. Development of Maxwell’s equations. Conservation laws. Problems in electrostatics and magnetostatics. Introduction to the special functions of mathematical physics. Time-dependent solutions of Maxwell’s equations. Motion of particles in given electromagnetic fields. Elementary theory of radiation. Plane waves in dielectric and conducting media. Dipole and quadruple radiation from nonrelativistic systems.

- PHYS-P 507 Electricity and Magnetism II (4 cr.) Three hours of lectures and one hour of recitation. Further development of radiation theory. Fourier analysis of radiation field and photons. Scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves. Special relativity. Covariant formulation of electromagnetic field theory.

- PHYS-P 508 Current Research in Physics (1 cr.) Presentations by faculty members designed to give incoming graduate students an overview of research opportunities in the department.

- PHYS-P 511 Quantum Mechanics I (4 cr.) Three hours of lectures and one hour of recitation. Basic principles, the Schrödinger equation, wave functions, and physical interpretation. Bound and continuum states in one-dimensional systems. Bound states in central potential; hydrogen atom. Variational method. Time-independent perturbation theory.

- PHYS-P 512 Quantum Mechanics II (4 cr.) P: P511. Three hours of lectures and one hour of recitation. Time-dependent perturbation theory. Schrödinger, Heisenberg and interaction pictures. Elementary theory of scattering. Rotations and angular momentum. Other symmetries. Nonrelativistic, many-particle quantum mechanics, symmetry and antisymmetry of wave functions, and Hartree-Fock theory of atoms and nuclei.

- PHYS-P 518 Scattering Methods in Materials Science (3 cr.) P: Graduate status. Introduction to Neutron and X-ray Scattering techniques used in Materials Physics. Basic Scattering Theory; Structural Measurements of Ordered, Disordered and Nano Materials; stress and Strain Measurements; Imaging; Inelastic Neutron and X-ray Scattering; EXAFS and NEXAFS: Polarized Neutrons and X-rays; Proposal Writing.

- PHYS-P 521 Classical Mechanics (3 cr.) P: Graduate status. Vector and tensor analysis. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics. Conservation laws and variational principles. Two-body motion, many-particle systems, and rigid-body motion. Canonical transformations and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Continuum mechanics with introduction to complex variables.

- PHYS-P 522 Advanced Classical Mechanics (3 cr.) Mathematical methods of classical mechanics; exterior differential forms, with applications to Hamiltonian dynamics. Dynamical systems and nonlinear phenomena; chaotic motion, period doubling, and approach to chaos.

- PHYS-P 526 Principles of Health Physics and Dosimetry (3 cr.) This course provides theoretical and practical aspects of radiation protection, including interaction of radiation with matter; radiation protection standards; radiation quantities and units; risk evaluation and dose limits; internal dose calculations; external dosimetry and personnel monitoring; and health physics.

- PHYS-P 535 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (3 cr.) P: P453 or equivalent. Survey of the properties and interactions of nuclei and elementary particles. Experimental probes of subatomic structure. Basic features and symmetries of electromagnetic, strong and weak forces. Models of hadron and nuclear structure. The role of nuclear and particle interactions in stars and the evolution of the universe.

- PHYS-P 537 Neutron Physics and Scattering (3 cr.) An interdisciplinary survey of the physics of neutrons, ideas and techniques of neutron scattering. Examples taken from applications of neutron scattering in biology, chemistry, geology, materials science, and physics.

- PHYS-P 540 Digital Electronics (3 cr.) Digital logic, storage elements, timing elements, arithmetic devices, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion. Course has lectures and labs emphasizing design, construction, and analysis of circuits using discrete gates and programmable devices.

- PHYS-P 541 Analog Electronics (3 cr.) Amplifier and oscillator characteristics feedback systems, bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, amplifier design, power supplies, and the analysis of circuits using computer-aided techniques.

- PHYS-P 548 Mathematical Methods for Biology (3 cr.) Physical principles applied to modeling biological systems to obtain analytical models that can be studied mathematically and tested experimentally.

- PHYS-P 551 Modern Physics Laboratory (3 cr.) Graduate-level laboratory; experiments on selected aspects of atomic, condensed-matter, and nuclear physics.

- PHYS-P 555 Quantum Computation and Information (3 cr.) The course covers basic concepts in quantum computation and information including: standard qubit model of computation, quantum algorithms such as Shor's factoring and Grover's search algorithms, physics of information processing, quantum error correction, and physical implementations of quantum computers.

- PHYS-P 556 Statistical Physics (3 cr.) The laws of thermodynamics; thermal equilibrium, entropy, and thermodynamic potentials. Principles of classical and quantum statistical mechanics. Partition functions and statistical ensembles. Statistical basis of the laws of thermodynamics. Elementary kinetic theory.

- PHYS-P 557 Solid State Physics (3 cr.) P: P453 or equivalent. Atomic theory of solids. Crystal and band theory. Thermal and electromagnetic properties of periodic structures.

- PHYS-P 570 Introduction to Accelerator Physics (3 cr.) P: Approval of instructor. Overview of accelerator development and accelerator technologies. Transverse phase space motion and longitudinal synchrotron motion of a particle in an accelerator. Practical accelerator lattice design. Design issues relevant to synchrotron light sources. Basics of free electron lasers. Spin dynamics in cyclic accelerators and storage rings

- PHYS-P 571 Special Topics in Physics of Beams (3 cr.) P: Approval of instructor.

- PHYS-P 572 Radiation Oncology Physics (3 cr.) This course covers the physical principles, equipment, processes, imaging guidance and clinical techniques involved in the treatment of cancer patients with external radiation beams and radioactive sources. Energy deposition characteristics are described. Treatment planning dose calculation algorithms and point dose calculations and international dosimetry protocols are covered in detail.

- PHYS-P 575 Introduction to Biophysics (3 cr.) Physics P575 presents an introduction to Biophysics. Topics include: properties of biomolecules and biomolecular complexes; biological membranes, channels, neurons; Diffusion, Brownian motion; reaction-diffusion processes, pattern formation; sensory and motor systems; psychophysics and animal behavior, statistical inference.

- PHYS-P 576 Introduction to Medical Diagnostic Imaging (3 cr.) This course teaches the fundamentals of medical imaging, including the basic physics and engineering associated with each imaging modality (CT, MRI, PET, and Ultrasound) as well as mathematics and computational tools associated with image reconstruction and image processing. The course is intended for students in biomedical engineering, physics, and medical sciences.

- PHYS-P 578 Radiation Biophysics (3 cr.) This course emphasizes the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular/molecular, tissue, and organismal level. Topics include effects in tissue, DNA repair, chemical modifiers, radiotherapy, consequences of whole-body irradiation, and carcinogenesis. Especially relevant for students training in cancer biology, radiation oncology, radiology, public health, and medical physics.

- PHYS-P 581 Modeling and Computation in Biophysics (3 cr.) Introduction to modeling and computational methods applied to phenomena in Biophysics. Topics: population dynamics; reaction kinetics; biological oscillators; coupled reaction networks; network theory; molecular motors; limit cycles; reaction diffusion models; the heart; turning instability; bacterial patterns; angiogenesis.

- PHYS-P 582 Biological and Artificial Neural Networks (3 cr.) Biological details of neurons relevant to computation. Artificial neural network theories and models, and relation to statistical physics. Living neural networks and critical evaluation of neural network theories. Student final projects will consist of programming networks and applying them to current research topics.

- PHYS-P 583 Signal Processing and Information Theory in Biology (3 cr.) Probability and statistics. Filtering. Correlation functions and power spectra. Time invariant and time-varying systems. Shannon Information. Coding and decoding. Processing of sensory signals and other applications to neurobiology and psychophysics.

- PHYS-P 607 Group Representations (3 cr.) P: Consent of instructor. Elements of group theory. Representation theory of finite and infinite compact groups. Study of the point crystal, symmetric, rotation, Lorentz, and other classical groups as time permits. Normally offered in alternate years; see also MATH M607-M608. [Not currently being offered.]

- PHYS-P 609 Computational Physics (3 cr.) Designed to introduce students (1) to numerical methods for quadrature, solution of integral and differential equations, and linear algebra; and (2) to the use of computation and computer graphics to simulate the behavior of complex physical systems. Topics will vary.

- PHYS-P 610 Computational Physics II (3 cr.) Second semester of computational physics focusing on more advanced topics; e.g.: fractals, kinetic growth models, models in statistical mechanics, quantum systems and fast Fourier transforms, parallel computing.

- PHYS-P 615 Condensed Matter Physics I (3 cr.) P: P512. Mechanical, thermal, electric, and magnetic properties of solids; crystal structure; band theory; semiconductors; phonons; transport phenomena; superconductivity; superfluidity; and imperfections. Usually given in alternate years.

- PHYS-P 616 Condensed Matter Physics II (3 cr.) P: P512. Mechanical, thermal, electric, and magnetic properties of solids; crystal structure; band theory; semiconductors; phonons; transport phenomena; superconductivity; superfluidity; and imperfections. Usually given in alternate years.

- PHYS-P 621 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I (4 cr.) P: P512. Introduction to quantum field theory, symmetries, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and renormalization.

- PHYS-P 622 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory II (4 cr.) P: P621. Non-Abelian gauge field theory, classical properties, quantization and renormalization, symmetries and their roles, and nonperturbative methods.

- PHYS-P 625 Quantum Many-Body Theory I (3 cr.) P: P512. Elements of nonrelativistic quantum field theory: second quantization, fields, Green’s functions, the linked-cluster expansion, and Dyson’s equations. Development of diagrammatic techniques and application to the degenerate electron gas and imperfect Fermi gas. Canonical transformations and BCS theory. Finite-temperature (Matsubara), Green’s functions, and applications.

- PHYS-P 626 Quantum Many-Body Theory II-Nuclear (3 cr.) P: P625. Continued development of nonrelativistic, many-body techniques, with an emphasis on nuclear physics: real-time, finite-temperature Green’s functions, path-integral methods, Grassmann algebra, generating functionals, and relativistic many-body theory. Applications to nuclear matter and nuclei.

- PHYS-P 627 Quantum Many-Body Theory II-Condensed Matter (3 cr.) P: P625. Continued development of nonrelativistic many-body techniques with an emphasis on condensed-matter physics: properties of real metals, superconductors, superfluids, Ginzburg-Landau theory, critical phenomena, order parameters and broken symmetry, ordered systems, and systems with reduced dimensionality.

- PHYS-P 630 Nuclear Astrophysics (3 cr.) P: A451-A452, P453-P454, or consent of instructor. Fundamental properties of nuclei and nuclear reactions, and the applications of nuclear physics to astronomy. The static and dynamic properties of nuclei; nuclear reaction rates at low and high energies. Energy generation and element synthesis in stars; the origin and evolution of the element abundances in cosmic rays.

- PHYS-P 633 Theory of the Nucleus I (3 cr.) P: P512. Nuclear forces, the two-nucleon problem, systematics and electromagnetic properties of nuclei, nuclear models, nuclear scattering and reactions, theory of beta-decay, and theory of nuclear matter.

- PHYS-P 634 Theory of the Nucleus II (3 cr.) P: P512. Nuclear forces, the two-nucleon problem, systematics and electromagnetic properties of nuclei, nuclear models, nuclear scattering and reactions, theory of beta-decay, and theory of nuclear matter.

- PHYS-P 635 Frontier Particle Physics I (3 cr.) This course focuses on the frontier of particle physics. Topics include Standard-Model physics, neutrino masses, tests of fundamental symmetries, anomalies, grand unified theories, higher-dimensional theories, supersymmetry, composite models, supergravities, string and superstring theory.

- PHYS-P 636 Frontier Particle Physics II (3 cr.) This course focuses on the frontier of particle physics. Topics include Standard-Model physics, neutrino masses, tests of fundamental symmetries, anomalies, grand unified theories, higher-dimensional theories, supersymmetry, composite models, supergravities, string and superstring theory.

- PHYS-P 637 Theory of Gravitation I (3 cr.) Introduction to the general theory of relativity, stress-energy tensor, parallel transport, geodesics, Einstein’s equation, differential geometry, manifolds, general covariance, bending of light, perihelion advance. Modern cosmology: Robertson-Walker metric, equations of state, Friedmann equations, Hubble’s law, redshift, cosmological constant, inflation, quintessence, cosmic microwave background, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, structure formation. See MATH M637.

- PHYS-P 638 Theory of Gravitation II (3 cr.) Gravitation waves, Schwarzschild geometry and black holes, Kerr metric, Reissner-Nordstrom metric, extremal black holes, Penrose diagrams, Hawking radiation, Lie derivatives, isometries and Killing vectors, variational principle and the Palatini formalism, spinors in general relativity, vierbeins, gravitation as a gauge theory, quantum gravity. See MATH M638.

- PHYS-P 640 Subatomic Physics I (3 cr.) P: P512, C: P621. Experimental methods and theoretic description of particle and nuclear physics: applied relativistic quantum mechanics, symmetries of fundamental interactions, experimental techniques, structure of the nucleon, electromagnetic and weak interactions, elementary particles, and the Standard Model. PHYS P640 may be substituted for P633 in degree requirements.

- PHYS-P 641 Subatomic Physics II (3 cr.) P: P640. Quarks and gluons in QCD, the parton model, strong interactions at low energies, nuclear environment and models, nuclear thermodynamics and subatomic physics in cosmology and astrophysics. PHYS P641 may be substituted for P634 in degree requirements.

- PHYS-P 647 Mathematical Physics (3 cr.) P: P501 or P502, P521, or MATH M442. Topics vary from year to year. Integral equations, including Green’s function techniques, linear vector spaces, and elements of quantum mechanical angular momentum theory. For students of experimental and theoretical physics. May be taught in alternate years by members of Departments of Physics or Mathematics, with corresponding shift in emphasis; see MATH M647.

- PHYS-P 657 Statistical Physics II (3 cr.) Continuation of P556. Topics include advanced kinetic and transport theory, phase transitions, and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.

- PHYS-P 665 Scattering Theory (3 cr.) P: P506, P511. Theoretical tools for analysis of scattering experiments. Electromagnetic theory, classical and quantum particle dynamics.

- PHYS-P 671 Special Topics in Accelerator Physics (3 cr.) P: P570, P521. Nonlinear dynamics: betatron phase space distortion due to the nonlinear forces. Methods of dealing with nonlinear perturbations. Multiparticle dynamics: microwave and coupled bunch instabilities. Physics of electron cooling and stochastic cooling. Advanced acceleration techniques: inverse free electron laser acceleration, wakefield and two-beam acceleration.

- PHYS-P 672 Special Topics in Accelerator Technology and Instrumentation (3 cr.) P: Consent of instructor.

- PHYS-P 676 Selected Topics in Biophysics (3 cr.) This course presents papers on current topics in Biophysics, together with key classical papers related to those topics. Student participation in discussions is essential. Each student is expected to write two essays on two of the topics presented.

- PHYS-P 683 Practicum in Medical Physics (3 cr.) For advanced students. This course provides practical, hands-on experience for students obtaining an advanced degree in medical physics. Several topics are offered each semester including but not limited to diagnostic imaging instrumentation, computational treatment planning, radiation protection, clinical radiation physics, and radiation therapy instrumentation.

- PHYS-P 700 Topics in Theoretical Physics (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 702 Seminar in Nuclear Spectroscopy (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 703 Seminar in Theoretical Physics (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 704 Seminar in Nuclear Reactions (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 705 Seminar in High-Energy Physics and Elementary Particles (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 706 Seminar in Solid State Physics (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 707 Topics in Quantum Field Theory and Elementary Particle Theory (3 cr.)

- PHYS-P 708 Topics in Quantum Field Theory and Elementary Particle Theory (3 cr.)

- PHYS-P 709 Topics in Biomedical Physics (2 cr.) Topics of current interest in biomedical and medical physics are examined each semester. Discussions and lecturers are based on key classical papers and recent publications related to the topic selected. Student participation in discussions is essential.

- PHYS-P 710 Seminars in Multidisciplinary Physics Applications (1 cr.) Students will attend seminars and report on various topics of interest. Schedule to be agreed upon by the student and instructor. Permission of instructor required.

- PHYS-P 743 Topics in Mathematical Physics (3 cr.) For advanced students. Several topics in mathematical physics studied in depth; lectures and student reports on assigned literature. Content varies from year to year. May be taught in alternate years by members of Departments of Physics or Mathematics, with corresponding shift in emphasis; see MATH M743.

- PHYS-P 750 Topics in Astrophysical Sciences (1-3 cr.) A seminar in astrophysics with special emphasis on subjects involving more than one department. Examples of such topics include planetology, nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmochronology, isotopic anomalies in meteorites, particle physics of the early universe, and atomic processes in astrophysical systems.

- PHYS-P 782 Topics in Experimental Physics (1-4 cr.)

- PHYS-P 790 Seminar in Mathematical Physics (arr. cr.)

- PHYS-P 800 Research (arr. cr.) S/F grading. Experimental and theoretical investigations of current problems; individual staff guidance.

- PHYS-P 801 Readings (arr. cr.) S/F grading. Independent study in physics; individual staff guidance.

- PHYS-P 802 Research (arr. cr.) Experimental and theoretical investigations of current problems; individual staff guidance. Graded by letter grade.

- PHYS-P 803 Readings (arr. cr.) Independent study in physics; individual staff guidance. Graded by letter grade.

- PHYS-P 804 Readings (1 cr.) Readings in one or more professional areas that present ethical dilemmas. Topics are individualized to the student's needs and interests. Permission of instructor required.

- PHYS-G 750 Topics in Astrophysical Sciences (1-3 cr.)