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Academic Bulletin

University Graduate School  
Kirkwood Hall 111 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 
(812) 855-8853 
Contact Graduate Office 


Graduate Faculty
Special Departmental Requirements



College of Arts and Sciences

Distinguished Professor Jeffrey Palmer

Graduate Faculty

Clyde Culbertson Professor
Carl Bauer

Distinguished Professors
Howard Gest (Emeritus), Charles Heiser (Emeritus), Thomas Kaufman, Jeffrey Palmer, John Preer (Emeritus), Frank Putnam (Emeritus, Biochemistry), Anthony San Pietro (Emeritus)

Peter Cherbas, Keith Clay, Sears Crowell (Emeritus), Thomas F. Donahue, Gerald Gastony, George Hegeman, Ellen Ketterson, Arthur Koch (Emeritus), Curtis Lively, Paul Mahlberg (Emeritus), George Malacinski, Carlos Miller (Emeritus), Craig Nelson, Val Nolan (Emeritus, Law), David Parkhurst (Public and Environmental Affairs), Elizabeth Raff, Rudolf Raff, J. C. Randolph (Public and Environmental Affairs), Loren Rieseberg, William Rowland, Albert Ruesink, Drew Schwartz (Emeritus), Susan Strome, Milton Taylor, Robert Togasaki (Emeritus), Maxine Watson, Eugene Weinberg (Emeritus), Meredith West (Psychology), David White (Emeritus), Donald Whitehead (Emeritus), Frank Zeller (Emeritus)

Associate Professors
Alan D. Bender, Josť Bonner, Edmund Brodie III, Yves Brun,* Yean Chooi-Odle, Lynda Delph, Roger Hangarter, George Hudock, Roger Innes, Cheng Kao, William Saxton, Stefan Surzycki, Michael Tansey, Miriam Zolan

Senior Scientist
Lucy Cherbas*

Adjunct Professors
David Dilcher (Geological Sciences), Elisabeth Lloyd (History and Philosophy of Science), John Richardson (Chemistry), Roderick Suthers (Medical Sciences), Nicholas Toth (Anthropology), Daniel Willard (Emeritus, Public and Environmental Affairs), William Timberlake (Psychology)

Adjunct Associate Professors
David Daleke (Medical Sciences), Anton Neff (Medical Sciences), Flynn Picardal (Public and Environmental Affairs), Henry Prange (Medical Sciences), Ted Widlanski (Chemistry)

Adjunct Assistant Professors
Donald Burke* (Chemistry), Andrew Feig* (Chemistry), Evelyn Jabri* (Chemistry), Vicki Meretsky,* Martha Oakley,* Martin Stone* (Chemistry)

Director of Graduate Studies
Professor Elizabeth Raff, Jordan Hall 325, (812) 855-1861

Degrees Offered
Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy in ecology and evolutionary biology; Doctor of Philosophy in genetics; Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy in microbiology; Doctor of Philosophy in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology; Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy in plant sciences; Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy in zoology; and Master of Arts for Teachers.

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Special Departmental Requirements

(See also general University Graduate School requirements.)

Admission Requirements
Undergraduate major in one of the biological sciences and course work in the program in which a degree is sought. A degree in a related field (e.g., chemistry, physics, or mathematics) may suffice if appropriate biology courses were included in the studentís degree program. Students seeking admission to biology degree programs should apply directly to the Department of Biology. Applications must include a complete entrance form, letters of recommendation, undergraduate transcripts, and scores on the Graduate Record Examination General Test. (While it is not required that applicants also submit scores on the Subject Test in biology, it is recommended that they do so.)

Special Requirement for the M.A. Degree
It is a biology departmental requirement that the M.A. degree be completed within five semesters, although some programs such as the M.A.T. and joint SPEA/Biology programs allow additional time.

Ph.D. Qualifying Examination
Includes written, oral, and research components. All full-time Ph.D. students must take the qualifying examination by the end of the fourth week of their fifth semester. In the event of failure or postponement, students may retake the examination once, but no later than the end of the twelfth week of their fifth semester. Students admitted to a Ph.D. program with a masterís degree from Indiana Universityís Department of Biology must have passed the qualifying examination by the end of their first year in the Ph.D. program.

Final Examination
Oral defense of the dissertation before the research committee. For additional requirements in certain programs, see below.

Other Provisions
All students enrolled in a Ph.D. program in the Department of Biology will be expected to serve as associate instructors for at least one semester, regardless of their source of support; and they must complete formal instruction in teaching methods in order to enhance their teaching skills. It is the conviction of the department that teaching experience is a vital aspect of graduate education, whether or not the student intends to pursue a teaching career after attainment of the desired degree(s).

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Master of Arts Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 30 credit hours, of which at least 20 credit hours must be taken in approved ecology and evolutionary biology courses. The courses that each student takes must have a coherent focus within the general field of ecology and evolutionary biology. At least one seminar should be taken each year.

Normally required; an alternative project may, however, be approved by the studentís advisory committee.

Final Examination
Normally includes a public research seminar and an oral defense of the thesis or alternative project before the advisory committee.

Doctor of Philosophy Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 90 credit hours, including two courses from one concentration area listed below and one course from a second area, E538 Environmental Statistics (or equivalent), and dissertation. Students must enroll in a seminar at least one semester during each of the first three years in the program.

Concentration Area Requirements

Ecology/Population Biology
E455 (SPEA) Limnology
L575 Ecosystem Structure and Function
L578 Advanced Population Biology
L579 Community Ecology
L591 Plant Population Biology-An Experimental Approach

Evolutionary Biology
B555 Special Topics in Plant Systematics
L505 Molecular Biology of Evolution
Z540 Genetics of Populations
L567 Evolution
Z620 Molecular Evolutionary Genetics

Z460 Ethology
P548 Neuroethology
L560 Physiological Ecology
Z566 Laboratory in Endocrinology
Z620 Behavioral Ecology

Requirements established by the minor department.

Foreign Language/Research Skill Requirements
Determined by the studentís advisory committee.

Final Examination
In addition to the oral defense of the dissertation before the studentís research committee, a public research seminar is required.

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Doctor of Philosophy Degree

Programs leading to the Ph.D. degrees in genetics, and in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology are administered by the Faculty Committee on Molecular Biology and Genetics (MBG), in collaboration with members of the Department of Chemistry. The Ph.D. in plant sciences can be pursued under the supervision of MBG or that of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, depending upon the nature of a studentís research interests.

The degrees administered by MBG are intended to serve the needs of students who wish to employ molecular and genetic approaches to problems in cell biology, developmental biology, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, molecular evolution, and plant sciences. Students enter these two degree programs through a common portal-the Core Program of first-year study administered by the MBG. After the first year, studentsí advanced work is monitored by the individual degree committees.

Common Requirements
During the first year, each student takes a common Core Program. Fall: L501, L523, L585, Chemistry C581 and C584; spring: L501, L586, L587. Biology L501 is a rotation course in which each student participates in research projects in at least three different laboratories prior to selecting a permanent research advisor and laboratory at the end of the first year. In addition, students whose native language is not English are expected to become sufficiently fluent to pass the universityís Examination in English for Associate Instructors during the course of the first year.

At the end of the first year, each student selects a research advisor and laboratory. Together with the advisor, the student also selects the other members of an advisory committee of three or four faculty members appropriate to the studentís intended degree and one from the prospective minor field (see below). This advisory committee guides and monitors the studentís subsequent independent work and guides the studentís selection of advanced courses. MBG requires that each student meet with the advisory committee at least once per year.

The MBG-administered degree programs require a total of 90 credit hours including the Core Program and at least six advanced courses (see below). They also require that each student register for Journal Club (M850 or Z620) during the second year and make two oral presentations in Journal Club during the course of his/her career. Each student must also take a Z620 course in Scientific Practices (Ethics) during the third year, and each student must teach for at least one semester.

Every student must maintain a minimum GPA of B (3.0) in order to remain in good standing. Courses to be counted toward the Ph.D. degree must be passed with a grade of B - (2.7) or better.

Preliminary Examination
Students in all programs take a preliminary examination at the end of the fourth semester. Students who pass this examination and complete the required course work are admitted to formal candidacy for the Ph.D.

Satisfactory Progress Toward a Degree
After passing the preliminary examination, for a student to remain in ďgood standingĒ in MBG requires that sufficient progress be made toward completing a thesis. If the research advisory committee judges progress to be unsatisfactory, probation may be recommended. At the end of the probationary period (usually a semester), if the advisory committee judges the studentís progress to be satisfactory, then probation will be lifted. If the advisory committee judges the studentís progress to remain unsatisfactory, then the student will be required to leave the program.

The final requirement of each program is a Ph.D. thesis, which must be defended in a public research seminar and in a meeting of the research advisory committee.

Advanced Courses and Minor
The MBG, in conjunction with the degree program committees, offers a program of half-semester advanced courses (Z620). The selection of courses changes each year. Courses are offered in all the degree subjects. Each program requires that its students take at least six of these courses, at least four of which should be certified by the studentís committee as appropriate to the chosen degree.

Each student must select a minor field distinct from the chosen degree. Ordinarily a student will select one of the MBG degree programs other than that chosen as a minor. In those cases, the Core Program courses meet minor requirements. In some cases a student may select another minor and must meet any additional requirements set by that minor.

For students from other programs who wish to minor in one of the MBG degree areas, the requirement is 6 credit hours of work in that field. The course selection should be approved by the director of the MBG.

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Degree programs are available for students with interests in many areas of microbiology. Each studentís curriculum is designed by the student in consultation with the graduate program director, the studentís mentor, and an appointed advisory committee.

Master of Arts Degree with a Research Thesis

Course Requirements
A total of 30 credit hours. Two courses from the following courses offered in the fall semester: C483, C484, C581, C584, M440, M460, M480, L585, M800 and two courses offered in the spring semester: M416, M430, M525, L586, M612, M800. Students are expected to rotate (M500) in at least two laboratories during the fall semester and to participate in M850 (Microbiology Journal Club) each spring semester.

A minimum of B - (2.7) in each required course.


Final Examination
Oral defense of thesis.

Master of Arts Degree with a Library Thesis

The department also offers a program in microbiology leading to a terminal masterís degree that does not require a laboratory research project. A student enrolled in this program will write a thesis critically evaluating and reviewing some aspect of microbiology reported in the literature. All other requirements for the degree are identical to those stated above for the research-thesis Master of Arts. The degree is designed to give individuals an opportunity to pursue graduate study at the masterís level without acquiring expertise in laboratory research.

Doctor of Philosophy Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 90 credit hours, including M500, C581, C584, L523 in the first fall semester and a total of three elective courses. Elective courses include: M440, M460, M480, L585 (fall), and M416, M430, M525, L586, and M612 (spring). Also required are M850 (Microbiology Journal Club) offered each spring, six advanced courses (Z620 Half-Semester Seminars), and Scientific Practices (Ethics) Z620 in the third year. During the first year, students are expected to complete three rotations (M500).

A minimum of B - (2.7) or better in each required course.

Advisory Committee
The committee will consist of the research advisor, one member of the microbiology faculty, a faculty representative of the studentís minor field, and one or two additional members of the faculty.


Final Examination
In addition to the oral defense of the dissertation before the research committee, a public seminar is required.

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Master of Arts Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 30 credit hours, stressing suitable advanced courses in plant sciences and cognate areas. At least 20 of the credit hours must be in the major area.

B average (3.0) required.

Required. An equivalent creative project may be accepted in lieu of the thesis.

Doctor of Philosophy Degree

Ph.D. students choosing a molecular approach will follow the procedures in all respects (courses, seminars, research rotations, preliminary examination, etc., of the Genetics and MCDB (Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology) graduate programs. Likewise, students choosing an organismal approach will follow the exact procedures of the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology program.

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Each degree program is tailored to the specific interests and needs of the student.

Master of Arts Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 30 credit hours, of which at least 20 credit hours must be taken in the Department of Biology.

B average (3.0) required.

Required. An alternative project may be accepted in lieu of the thesis.

Doctor of Philosophy Degree

Course Requirements
A total of 90 credit hours of advanced course work, including dissertation.

Selected in consultation with research advisor and zoology program director.

Master of Arts for Teachers Degree

The Master of Arts for Teachers in biology is offered by the University Graduate School (not the School of Education) to provide training beyond the bachelorís degree for those who intend to teach in junior or senior high school and who wish additional training in biology. Each student in the program must possess a teacherís certificate by the time the degree is conferred, with the exception of international students who intend to return to their native country.

Admission Requirement
Bachelorís degree from a regionally accredited institution with sufficient hours in biology to enable the student to take courses carrying graduate credit.

Course Requirements
A total of 36 credit hours, of which a minimum of 25 credit hours must be in courses in the biological sciences that carry graduate credit; the remaining 11 credit hours may be in education. All programs of study must be approved by the Master of Arts for Teachers program advisor.

Certification Requirements
For a complete list of courses in education and other areas that are required for provisional certification, consult the School of Education Bulletin, Undergraduate Program.

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M310 Microbiology (3 cr.)
L313 Cell Biology Laboratory (3 cr.) P: BIOL L113 and L211, or CHEM C342, or consent of instructor. R: BIOL L312, CHEM C484.
M315 Microbiology Laboratory (2 cr.)
B351 Fungi (3 cr.)
B352 Fungi: Laboratory (2 cr.)
B364 Summer Flowering Plants (5 cr.)
B368 Ethnobotany (3 cr.)
B371 Ecological Plant Physiology (3 cr.)
B372 Ecological Plant Physiology Laboratory (2 cr.)
B373 Mechanisms of Plant Development (3 cr.)
Z373 Entomology (3 cr.)
Z374 Invertebrate Zoology (3 cr.)
Z383 Laboratory in Entomology (2 cr.)
M400 Biomedical Sciences Documentation (1 cr.)
Z406 Vertebrate Zoology (5 cr.)
B415 Phytogeography (2 cr.)
L417 Molecular Aspects of Development (3 cr.)
Z420 Cytology (3 cr.)
B423 Introduction to Paleobotany (3 cr.)
M430 Virology: Lecture (3 cr.)
M435 Viral-Tissue-Culture Laboratory (3 cr.)
M440 Medical Microbiology (3 cr.)
B445 Experimental Molecular and Cellular Biology of Eukaryotes (4 cr.)
M460 Biology of the Prokaryotes (3 cr.)
Z460 Ethology (3 cr.)
L465 Advanced Field Biology (3 cr.)
M465 Biology of the Prokaryotes: Laboratory (3 cr.)
Z466 Endocrinology (3 cr.)
L473 Ecology (3 cr.)
L474 Field and Laboratory Ecology (2 cr.)
Z476 Biology of Fishes (3 cr.)
L479 Evolution and Ecology (4 cr.)
M480 Microbial and Molecular Genetics (3 cr.)
M485 Microbial and Molecular Genetics Laboratory (3 cr.)
Z486 Standards and Techniques of Animal Experimentation (2 cr.)

L500 Independent Study (cr. arr.) P: written consent of faculty member supervising research.
M500 Introduction to Research (Microbiology) (1-6 cr.) P: graduate standing. Objectives and techniques of microbiological research. Assignment to a research problem with a faculty member to be completed in two semesters.
L501 Independent Study (1-6 cr.) P: written consent of faculty member supervising work. Supervised work. S/F grading.
L505 Molecular Biology of Evolution (3 cr.) P: senior or graduate standing and consent of instructor. Topics include the relationship between molecular and morphological evolution, production of evolutionary change through changes in development processes, models for evolutionary changes in regulation of gene action, and origins of major groups of organisms.
Z508 Advanced Ornithology (4 cr.) P: Z406. Emphasis on avian ecology, distribution, and behavior; discussion and evaluation of recent literature. Field work includes investigation of populations of a wintering species and a breeding species.
L510 Introduction to the Research Laboratory (3 cr.) P: graduate standing. Objectives and techniques of biological research. Completion of a one-semester research problem with a faculty member.
M511 Molecular Biology of Prokaryotes (3 cr.) P: CHEM C584. The course will first develop an understanding of nucleic acid structure and function to a professional level, then use these principles to explore molecular aspects of gene expression and evolution. Emphasis will be on prokaryotes.
M512 Molecular Biology of AIDS Virus (3 cr.) P: CHEM C341 and BIOL L311. A detailed consideration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, causative agent of AIDS). The functions of the HIV genes and how those functions affect pathology and normal cellular mechanisms.
L520 Seminar in Genetics (cr. arr.) P: L364 or Z420 or equivalents.
L521 Problems in Genetics-Higher Organisms (3 cr.) P: L364 or equivalent. Selected topics in the genetics of higher organisms emphasizing studies at the molecular level.
L522 Advanced Eukaryotic Molecular Genetics (3 cr.) P: consent of instructor; beginning course in genetics. Correlation of genetic data with changes in chromosome structure and number. Mechanics of chromosome behavior in crossing over and disjunction.
L523 Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature (1-6 cr.) Detailed analysis of current research papers in biology. Emphasis on experimental design, research methods, interpretation of results, and suitability of controls. Generally taken in the first semester of graduate residence. Topics may vary to suit specific fields (e.g., molecular, cellular, and developmental biology and genetics, or ecological and evolutionary biology).
M525 Topics in Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology (3 cr.) P: graduate standing and C483 or M350 or equivalent. The course will consider topics in physiology and biochemistry of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms. Subjects include membrane physiology and regulatory networks in metabolism and gene expression.
B530 Anatomy and Morphology Seminar (cr. arr.) P: consent of instructor. Seminars will include current research studies in plant anatomy and morphology.
M540 Medical Microbiology and Medical Immunology (2-5 cr.) Basic concepts of immunology; microorganisms as agents of disease; host-parasite relationships; epidemiology; chemotherapy.
Z540 Genetics of Populations (3 cr.) P: consent of instructor; R: Z465, MATH M216 or equivalent. Survey of the theoretical basis of population genetics and a review of current problems and experimental findings. Content varies from year to year.
M545 Medical Microbiology Laboratory (1 cr.) P: M540. Laboratory experiments to illustrate material discussed in M540.
B555 Special Topics in Plant Systematics (3 cr.) Topics vary from year to year. Examples of subjects to be treated: phylogeny and families of flowering plants, biology of ferns, biosystematics, molecular markers in populational biology and systematics. Enrollment of advanced undergraduates encouraged.
L555 Alternative Approaches to Teaching College Biology (2 cr.) Frameworks for teaching college biology. Addresses different teaching objectives (knowledge, applications, scientific thinking, ethical and policy considerations); different teaching methods (lectures, readings, recitations, discussions, exercises, experiments, projects); student heterogeneity (expectations, abilities, development, learning styles); evaluation and grading; course and curriculum design; and evaluation and improvement of teaching.
B560 Seminar in Systematics (cr. arr.) P: consent of instructor. Topics vary each semester.
L560 Physiological Ecology (3 cr.) Influence of the abiotic environment on energy and material transfers in individual organisms, with emphasis on terrestrial animals.
Z566 Laboratory in Endocrinology (2 cr.) P: Z466. Development and structure of major endocrine glands; their role in maintaining constancy of internal environment. Limited to 12 students.
L567 Evolution (3 cr.) P: Graduate standing in Psychology or Biology or consent of instructor. A graduate-level course in Evolutionary Biology. Topics include quantitative genetics, population genetics, and strategic models of natural selection. Special topics include life history theory, sex and sexual selection, kin selection, shifting-balance theory, speciation, macroevolution and comparative methods.
B570 Seminar in Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants (cr. arr.) P: consent of instructor.
L570 Seminar in Ecology and Environmental Biology (1 cr.) P: consent of instructor. Presentations and discussions of current research in evolution, ecology, and behavior. May be repeated for credit.
B572 Photobiology (3 cr.) P: S305 or L367 or CHEM C483 or equivalent. Biochemical and biophysical relationship between light and biological systems. Topics will include photosynthesis, visual processes, photorespiration, phototaxis, bioluminescence, and photomorphogenesis, with emphasis on photosynthesis.
L572 Microbial Ecology (3 cr.) Principles of microbial ecology with emphasis on the population, community, and ecosystem ecology of bacteria and fungi.
B573 Special Topics in Plant Physiology (2-5 cr.) P: consent of instructor. Advanced topics in plant physiology. With consent of instructor, may be taken more than once for credit.
L575 Ecosystem Structure and Function (3 cr.) P: L473 and L474 (or equivalent). Investigation of structure, function, homeostasis, and development at the ecosystem level of organization, including synthesis and evaluation of existing models and recent data.
M575 Human Parasitology (3 cr.) P: BIOL M310 and M315. Biology of human parasites focusing on their etiology, epidemiology, immunology, diagnosis, and treatment. Major groups of protozoa, helminths, and medically important arthropods covered. Independent research assigned on a special topic. Lab presents both live and fixed materials complementing lecture.
B576 Developmental Plant Physiology (3 cr.) P: consent of instructor. Chemically oriented; examination of substances uniquely involved in growth and development in higher plants. Application of information to lower plants only briefly discussed.
Z576 Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory (2 cr.) P or C: Z374. Laboratory and field studies of invertebrates, with an emphasis on experiments with living specimens.
B577 Plant Biochemistry (2 cr.) A comparative treatment of selected biochemical topics, emphasizing unique or important processes in plant metabolism and development.
L578 Advanced Population Biology (3 cr.) P: courses in ecology, genetics, and basic calculus, and permission of instructor. A detailed assessment of population-ecological and population-genetic theory, and the factors determining the size and composition of animal populations in nature.
L579 Community Ecology (3 cr.) P: ecology and genetics. Survey of ecological and evolutionary topics between population and ecosystem levels. Review of scientific levels of selection and speciation. Major emphasis on interactions among populations (consumer-producer, competition, symbiosis, etc.) and community analysis (island biogeography, niche, diversity, and community structure).
L580 Introduction to Research (1 cr.) Individual faculty from the various graduate programs in biology present seminars on their research programs. Discussion between students and faculty about possible thesis research projects is encouraged.
L581 Behavioral Ecology (3 cr.) Integrated elements of ethology, physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology providing a synthetic approach to animal behavior. Emphasis on integrated studies providing new insights into both evolutionary and mechanistic questions. Students are asked to analyze the literature critically and debate controversial issues actively.
L585 Molecular Genetics (3 cr.) P: L364 and C483 or equivalent. The molecular basis of genetic interactions, with emphasis on microbial systems. The course covers the molecular mechanisms of mutation, suppression, recombination, complementation, etc., as well as mechanisms for gene transfer in bacteria and bacteriophage. The application of genetic analysis to variety of molecular biological topics is emphasized.
L586 Cell Biology (4.5 cr.) Critical analysis of recent advances in our understanding of molecular organization and function of cellular structures. The emphasis of this course will be on eukaryotic cells. Topics include membrane organization, cytoskeleton assembly and functions, signal transduction, cell-cycle regulation, protein sorting, and vesicle trafficking.
L587 Developmental Biology (4.5 cr.) Evaluation of classical and current molecular and genetic approaches to studying development of eukaryotic organisms. A significant portion of the course is devoted to discussing recent findings from molecular genetic studies in Drosophila and C. elegans.
L590 Seminar in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (2 cr. ) P: consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of topics in molecular and cellular biology as seminar by students. Topics from current literature. Concentration on a particular area each semester to be announced before registration. S/F grading
L591 Plant Population Biology-An Experimental Approach (3 cr.) P: ecology course and evolution course. The mechanisms by which plants, as individuals, contribute to development of population structure. Experimental studies of intra- and inter-specific mechanisms of population regulation, reproduction, and vegetative growth. Emphasis on development and physiological characteristics which determine mode of interaction. Greenhouse projects designed and conducted by students.
L600 Special Topics in Genetics (cr. arr.) P: L364 or equivalent. Topics not extensively treated in other courses, e.g., population genetics, human genetics, immunogenetics, biochemical genetics of clones of mammalian cells. Topic presented will not be duplicated within three to five years. L600 carries credit in Plant Sciences, Microbiology, and Zoology programs.
M610 Recent Advances in Microbiology (1-3 cr.) P: graduate standing in microbiology or related area. Course content changes each semester so that over a cycle of several years, major research areas are covered. May be repeated for credit.
M612 Microbial Development (3 cr.) P: graduate standing or consent of instructor. An analysis of recent publications concerned with the biochemistry of development in viral, prokaryotic, and simple eukaryotic systems. The topics vary and emphasize the regulatory aspects of development. Cell differentiation and cell-cell interactions are discussed.
Z620 Special Topics in Zoology (cr. arr.) P: advanced undergraduate or graduate standing. Topics not extensively treated in other courses, e.g., theoretical zoology, oceanography, reservoir limnology, human ecology, critical analysis of the scientific literature, and other fields. Topics presented will be treated every three to five years.
L800 Research (1-15 cr.)
M800 Research (1-12 cr.)
M850 Seminar (1 cr. ) P: graduate standing in microbiology or consent of instructor. Reports on assigned topics of current interest. May be repeated for credit. S/F grading

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