Optometry Degree Requirements
Courses in Optometry
Student Honors and Awards
Application for Admission
Qualified male and female applicants are sought from all racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural groups in order to enhance the diversity of the class. The ideal candidates for the Doctor of Optometry degree should have demonstrated high scholastic ability, leadership, and a record of community and volunteer service. Applicants are judged on scholastic ability (demonstrated by college grades, high school class rank, and admission and aptitude test scores). Written and oral communication skills are extremely important. The applicants' personal characteristics are evaluated through character references, interviews, amount and kind of extracurricular and leadership activities, work experience, and the narrative explaining why they chose optometry as a career.
An admission interview is arranged for those applicants with the greatest potential for success in completing the program. The interview is usually conducted at the School of Optometry.
The application period is September 1 through January 31; the application deadline is February 1. Interviewing begins in October and continues through April. A rolling admissions process is used, and the selection process is usually completed by the end of May. A new class begins each fall.
Early Decision Process
The Indiana University School of Optometry has an early decision admission process that offers numerous advantages. If the Indiana University School of Optometry is the school that a talented student wants to attend, then an early decision can eliminate the necessity of application to multiple schools. Knowing the decision in advance gives peace of mind. A student admitted under the early decision procedure will receive regular communication from the school, can be involved in some school activities, and generally stay connected. In addition, an early decision provides more time for students to make financial arrangements to attend the Indiana University School of Optometry. Students seeking admission by this process are evaluated by the criteria listed above.
Students can apply anytime after they have completed 40 graded hours of credit with a minimum GPA of 3.60 and before September 1 of the year immediately prior to the year when the applicant wishes to enter. Thus, students can know whether they are accepted as early as the spring of their second year of college. Credits acquired by examination and through pass/fail courses do not count in the 40-hour total.
Admission to the School of Optometry under this process (after four years of undergraduate work) is conditional upon the following:
- Maintaining a cumulative GPA of at least 3.30 throughout the remainder of undergraduate studies.
- Obtaining a score of at least 320 on the Quantitative and Total Science sections of the Optometry Admission Test (OAT), with no section score on the OAT below 280. Students should plan to take the OAT for the first time in the spring of their second year of college. Students who do not achieve this level in the spring of their second year can retake the test again in October of their third year.
- Completing all the prerequisite courses for admission to the School of Optometry as outlined in this bulletin.
Students are encouraged to complete a bachelor's degree prior to entering the School of Optometry. Some exceptional students, however, can enter the optometry program after three years of undergraduate work, which can decrease the total years of university study to seven. Early decision is also available for these students. These students should have a minimum GPA of 3.7 upon completion of 40 graded hours of credit.
Admission to the School of Optometry under this process (after three years of undergraduate work) is conditional upon the following:
- Maintaining a GPA of at least 3.45 for the remainder of the undergraduate studies.
- Obtaining a score of at least 330 on the Quantitative and Total Science sections of the Optometry Admission Test, with no section score below 300. Students should plan to take the OAT for the first time in the spring of their second year of college. Students who do not achieve this level in the spring of their second year can retake the test again in October of their third year.
- Completing all the prerequisite courses for admission to the School of Optometry as outlined in this bulletin.
If a student who is conditionally admitted under an early decision plan for acceptance after three years of undergraduate study fails to meet the above conditions but meets the conditions for acceptance after four years, the student will be accepted after four years.
The School of Optometry will make an effort to accept no more than 50 percent of the class through the early decision program. Students applying for an early decision who are not accepted or who do not successfully complete the conditions of the early decision requirements will be considered with the normal pool of applicants. A negative decision on an early decision application in no way jeopardizes a student's chances for admission through the normal admission process.
Functional Standards and Expectations
The Indiana University School of Optometry expects that admitted students will be able to meet all of the functional standards for optometric education established by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry. These standards require that students possess appropriate abilities in the following areas:
- Observation: Students must be able to acquire a defined level of knowledge as presented through lectures, laboratories, patient interaction, and self-study.
- Communication: Students must be able to communicate effectively, efficiently, and sensitively with patients and their families, peers, staff, clinic faculty, and other members of the health care team.
- Sensory and Motor Communication: Students must possess the sensory and motor skills necessary to perform an eye examination, including emergency care.
- Intellectual-Conceptual, Integrative, and Qualitative Abilities: The student must be able to accurately and efficiently use such abilities as measurement, calculation, and reasoning analysis.
- Behavioral and Social Attributes: The student must possess the necessary behavioral and social attributes for the study and practice of optometry, such as ethical standards, empathy, and commitment to the optometric profession.
Qualified applicants to the School of Optometry who have disabilities that might hinder them in achieving these standards can, if they are admitted, receive reasonable accommodation from the School of Optometry. This accommodation will be based on an evaluation of the disability conducted by Indiana University's Office of Disabled Student Services.
Each applicant is required to take the Optometry Admission Test (OAT), which is designed to measure general academic ability and scientific knowledge. The test is given at various centers across the United States in October and February. Both the October and the February tests may be used for the next fall's admission. Information concerning the test and application forms may be obtained from Optometry Admission Testing Program, 211 E. Chicago Avenue, Suite 1846, Chicago, IL 60611; (312) 440-2693.
All applicants whose native language is not English are required to establish English proficiency. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is preferred. For information concerning the TOEFL, write to TOEFL Educational Testing Service, P.O. Box 6151, Princeton, NJ 08541, or visit the TOEFL Web site at www.toefl.org.
Students admitted to the Doctor of Optometry program are required to pay an enrollment deposit of $500. This fee is due no later than June 1 prior to the start of the fall semester. If the student enrolls in the IU School of Optometry, the deposit will be applied to the student's tuition. If the student does not enroll, the deposit is not refunded.
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A total of 90 semester hours of college credit is required as a minimum for admission to the School of Optometry; however, a bachelor's degree is strongly recommended. Preoptometry requirements must be completed by the time the student enters the School of Optometry. Students who already have a bachelor's degree with a major in a science field are often fully prepared for admission to the School of Optometry. Those with degrees in nonscience fields may find additional course work required. Students may take their preoptometry course work at any accredited institution.
Students entering with a bachelor's degree must have completed the following courses:
||Min. sem. cr. hrs. req'd.
||Comparable IU courses
| Introductory, with lab
Advanced (animal or development)
Microbiology, with lab
|L112 and L113
any 200 level or above
M250 and M255
(formerly M310 and M315)
||C105, C125, C106, C126
| Organic, 2 courses:
lecture and lab or 2 lectures
||C341, C342, or C343
||P201 and P202
|Statistical Techniques and/or
| Experimental Design
Students entering the Indiana University School of Optometry without a bachelor's degree must have completed the following courses in addition to the above:
||Min. sem. cr. hrs. req'd.
||Comparable IU courses
|Arts and Humanities1
Introductory and above
||P101 and P102 or above
|Social and Historical Studies4
Of the 90 credit hours, at least 20 must be at the 300-400 level. A maximum of 60 semester hours may be taken at a junior college.
None of the specified courses may be taken on a Pass/Fail basis. The credit hours required in the individual subjects are considered absolute minimums, which must be met or exceeded. If the credit hours in any subject total less than the minimum specified, the student should complete the next higher course in that subject. Quarter hours convert to semester hours by the following scale:
3 quarter hours = 2 semester hours
4 quarter hours = 3 semester hours
5 quarter hours = 3.33 semester hours
6 quarter hours = 4 semester hours
For further information, contact the Office of Student Administration, School of Optometry, Indiana University, 800 E. Atwater Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405-3680; (812) 855-1917; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The Indiana University School of Optometry admits students with advanced standing only when a vacancy exists and when the student would have met the Indiana University preoptometry requirements and standards for admission had he or she applied here originally. Students may lose credits in transferring and, for this reason, transfer is generally not recommended.
The student must have a minimum cumulative average of B in the optometry curriculum, be in good standing with his or her present institution, and have a compelling reason for wanting to transfer to Indiana University's School of Optometry. No deficiencies in the Indiana University preoptometry requirements may exist at the time of admission. Candidates for transfer must submit a statement of good standing from the dean of the school from which they are transferring. A regular application for admission should be submitted along with the statement of good standing and other documents specific to the transfer request.
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The courses required for this degree are listed in the section of this bulletin entitled "Optometry Curriculum." All of the courses except those identified as electives must be completed. A baccalaureate degree is required prior to receiving the O.D. degree. The curricular requirements for preoptometry are described in the section of this bulletin entitled "Preoptometry Requirements."
Students are responsible for understanding all requirements for graduation and for completing them by the time they expect to graduate.
Students admitted to the Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) program without an undergraduate degree will receive the B.S. in Optometry upon successful completion of the first two years of the four-year professional degree program. The following requirements must be satisfied by the student seeking this degree:
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- A minimum of 122 credit hours in courses that may be counted toward the B.A., B.S., or higher degree of one or more degree-granting divisions of the university; that may include the allowable credits from the associate degree program of the School of Optometry (see 14 below).
- A minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00.
- A minimum of 30 credit hours in courses at the 300 level or above.
- At least 30 credit hours of V-lettered courses, which are regularly offered by the School of Optometry and/or the Vision Science Graduate Program and that may include allowable credits at the 200 level (see 14 below).
- Mathematics or Psychology K300 (3 cr.) or an equivalent course in statistical techniques or experimental design.
- A minimum of 60 credit hours at Indiana University, of which at least 26 credit hours, including not fewer than 10 credits in the V-lettered courses, must be completed in residence on the Bloomington campus.
- Courses taken on a Pass/Fail basis can be applied only as electives in meeting the degree requirements. The limit is a total of 24 credit hours with one course allowed per semester.
- Not more than 60 credit hours earned in accredited junior colleges may be applied toward the degree.
- Not more than 10 credit hours earned through correspondence study and/or special credit examination may be applied toward the degree, except by special permission of the dean.
- Work for a degree must be completed within six years from the time the student first registers in the university, except by special permission of the dean.
- The English composition requirement is W131 or equivalent.
- The foreign language requirement is 6-8 hours of college credit in a single foreign language or two years of a single foreign language in high school, with a minimum average grade of C (2.00). This requirement also may be met by a placement examination.
- The required 6 credit hours of arts and humanities, 6 credit hours of social and historical studies, and 24 credit hours in natural and mathematical science should be taken from courses equivalent to those offered by the College of Arts and Sciences. (See "Approved Distribution Courses" in the College of Arts and Sciences Bulletin.)
- Students enrolled in optometry courses that include material also covered in courses of the optometry associate degree programs may earn credit in recognition of the partial overlap.
The curriculum includes instruction in all of the clinical and practical phases of optometry as well as in the theoretical and fundamental aspects of vision science. It requires four years of professional degree courses, including at least a three-week summer assignment prior to the third year.5 The university schedules two regular academic semesters and two summer sessions. The regular fall semester includes 14 weeks and two days of instruction plus one week for final examinations; the spring semester includes 15 weeks of instruction plus one week for final examinations. Most optometry courses are scheduled for a full academic semester. Some, however, are scheduled for three, six, or eight weeks, and will be scheduled back-to-back with other courses that will be taken in the remaining weeks of the semester. The first summer session lasts six weeks; the second summer session lasts eight weeks.
|V511 Human Gross Anatomy
V515 Medical and Ocular Biochemistry
V521 Geometric Optics I
V540 Ocular Microbiology I
V550 The Clinical Interview and Health History Taking
V578 Public Health Policy and theOptometric Profession
|V512 Ocular Anatomy
V516 Ocular Physiology
V522 Geometric Optics II
V542 Systemic Physio-Pharmacology I
V543 General Pathology
V551 Clinical Optometry I
V553 Diagnostic Procedures I
|V631 Ophthalmic Optics I
V642 Systemic Physio-Pharmacology II
V652 Clinical Optometry II
V654 Diagnostic Procedures II
V663 Physiological Optics I: Visual Optics
V665 Physiological Optics III:Ocular Motility
|V632 Ophthalmic Optics II
V633 Contact Lenses I
V644 Ocular Disease I
V646 Ocular Pharmacology
V648 Neurophysiology of Vision
V656 Diagnostic Procedures III
V664 Physiological Optics II:Visual Function
V666 Physiological Optics IV:Binocular Function
V670 Epidemiology and Biostatisticsfor Optometry
|V680 Introduction to Clinic
|V745 Ocular Disease II
V748 Principles and Methods of
Physical Assessment and Medicine
V752 Contact Lenses II
V755 Basic Visual Therapy
V756 Clinical Assessment I
V775 Legal and Professional Aspects of Optometry
V786 Optometry Clinic6
V787 Optometry Clinic6
|V713 Ocular Microbiology II
V746 Ocular Disease III (Neuro-Optometry)
V749 Applied Ocular Therapeutics
V751 Low Vision and Rehabilitation
V753 Optometric Gerontology and Geriatrics
V757 Clinical Assessment II
V774 Socioeconomic Aspects of Optometry
V781 Pediatric Optometry
V782 Visual Perception and Learning Disabilities
V788 Optometry Clinic6
V789 Optometry Clinic6
|V885 Optometry Clinic (Bloomington)
V887 Extension Clinic (Indianapolis)
V888 External Clinic
(Fourth Clinical Assignment): V885,V887, or V888
V889 Special Projects
|V569 Selected Studies
V758 Advanced Visual Therapy
V884 Optometry Clinic-Arranged
|V780 Clinical Skills Enhancement-3rd year
V880 Clinical Skills Enhancement-4th year
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Registration and Counseling
Designated staff members of the School of Optometry's Office of Student Administration serve as advisors to optometry students in the school. Students are required to meet with their advisors prior to registration to arrange their programs. All students are required to register at the appointed time each semester.
A student is not permitted to enroll in fewer than 12 credit hours during a fall or spring semester except with special permission from the dean.
Withdrawals from Courses
Withdrawals during the first eight weeks of a semester, first four weeks of a half-semester course, or first two weeks of a summer session are automatically marked W (Withdrawn). Withdrawals that would reduce a student's enrollment below 12 credit hours ordinarily will not be authorized.
Petitions for withdrawal after the periods specified above will not be authorized by the dean except for urgent reasons related to extended illness or equivalent distress. The desire to avoid a low grade is not an acceptable reason for withdrawal from a course.
If a student withdraws with the dean's consent, the grade in the course will be W if the student is passing at the time of withdrawal and F if the student is not passing. The grade will be recorded on the date of withdrawal. Failure to complete a course without authorized withdrawal will result in the grade F.
Addition of Courses
No course may be added by students after the first two weeks of a semester or first week of a summer session or half semester unless the instructor of the course petitions that an exception be made and the request is approved by the dean.
The quality of a student's work is indicated by the following grades and numerical values:
A+ (4.00), A (4.00), A- (3.70) High degree of academic performance
B+ (3.30), B (3.00), B- (2.70) Above-average achievement
C+ (2.30), C (2.00), C- (1.70) Average achievement
D+ (1.30), D (1.00), D- (0.70) Passing work but below desired standards
No more than one grade of D (e.g., D+, D, or D-) in each of the following academic areas may be counted toward graduation:
- V511 Human Gross Anatomy, V512 Ocular Anatomy, V514 Neuroanatomy, V515 Medical Biochemistry, V516 Ocular Physiology, V517 Histology, V540 Ocular Microbiology I, V542/V642 Systemic Physio-Pharmacology I and II, V543 General Pathology, V646 Ocular Pharmacology, and V713 Ocular Microbiology II
- V521/V522 Geometric Optics I and II, V631/V632 Ophthalmic Optics I and II, V648 Neurophysiology of Vision, V663 Visual Optics, V665 Ocular Motility, V664 Visual Function, and V666 Binocular Function
- V578 Public Health Policy and the Optometric Profession; V633/V752 Contact Lenses I and II; V644/V745/ V746 Ocular Disease I, II, and III; V670 Epidemiology and Biostatistics for Optometry; V748 Principles and Methods of Physical Assessment; V749 Applied Ocular Therapeutics; V751 Low Vision; V753 Optometric Gerontology and Geriatrics; V755 Visual Therapy; V774 Socioeconomic Aspects of Optometry; V775 Legal and Professional Aspects of Optometry, V776 Environmental Optics; V781 Pediatric Optometry; and V782 Visual Perception and Learning Disabilities
- V550 The Clinical Interview and Health History Taking; V551/V652 Clinical Optometry I and II; V553/V654/V656 Diagnostic Procedures I, II, and III; V680 Introduction to Clinic; V756 Clinical Assessment, V757 Clinical Assessment II, V780 Clinical Skills Enhancement-3rd Year; V786/V787/ V788/V789 Optometry Clinic; V885 Optometry Clinic Bloomington; V887 Extension Clinic Indianapolis; V888 External Clinic; V884 Optometry Clinic-Arranged; V880 Clinical Skills Enhancement-4th Year; and V889 Special Projects
F-Failure in a course or failure to complete a course without an authorized withdrawal. When a failing grade is recorded in an optometry course, the instructor(s) may require specific remedial procedures to be taken by the student before readmission to the course. The FX option is not accepted by the School of Optometry. Retaking and passing a failed course will, therefore, not remove the original grade of F from the student's record.
W-Withdrawn. Given automatically when the student, with the approval of the academic advisor and the dean, officially withdraws during the first eight weeks of a semester, first four weeks of a half-semester course, or first two weeks of a summer session. After these deadlines, the grade W is given in the instance of an approved and properly executed withdrawal only if the student is passing at the time of withdrawal.
R-Deferred Grade. Given when the grade determination will be deferred until completion of two or more terms of study, as with research or thesis courses. Also given either at the end of the first term of a two-term course or midway through a single course that overlaps two terms, when the course has been identified as one for a deferred grade in the Schedule of Classes. At the end of the final term in the sequence, the entry or entries R will be replaced with standard letter grades. Instructors will designate the standard grades on the rosters for the final term or by means of a form for removal of deferred grades.
I-Incomplete. May be given only when the work of the course is substantially completed and when the student's work is of passing quality. When an Incomplete is assigned, a record will be maintained in the Office of Student Administration of the School of Optometry. The record will include a statement of the reason for recording the Incomplete and an adequate guide for its removal, with a suggested final grade in the event of the departure or extended absence of the instructor from the campus.
A student must complete work required to have the Incomplete removed within one calendar year from the date of its recording, although the dean may authorize adjustment of this period in exceptional circumstances. An Incomplete that still stands after one calendar year is replaced by a grade of F.
Once a student has graduated, nothing in these regulations will prohibit the Incomplete from remaining on the record.
Absences from Scheduled Classes
Illness is usually the only acceptable excuse for absence from class. Other absences must be explained to the satisfaction of the instructor, who will decide whether omitted work may be made up. The names of students who are excessively absent are to be reported by their instructors to the dean.
Absences from Final Examinations
A student who fails to attend the final examination of a course and who has a passing grade up to that time may be given a grade of Incomplete if the absence is explained to the instructor's satisfaction. A missed final examination for which there is no satisfactory excuse will be assigned a grade of F. When called upon, the Academic Review Committee of the School of Optometry will assist an instructor in weighing an excuse concerning absence from a final examination.
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It is the intent of the School of Optometry that its professional students be able to graduate after four years of instruction (but in six years at the maximum). Although primary responsibility rests with the student, the school will work to help all students achieve good academic standing and will seek out and attempt (within limits) to provide remedial help for students who are having academic difficulties.
The minimum standard for academic good standing is a semester and cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 2.00, that is, a C average, which is also the minimum standard for graduation from Indiana University and the School of Optometry. A student who has repeated a course and received a grade of D+ or below both times is not in good standing, irrespective of the semester and cumulative GPA (see below: Ineligible to Continue, Item 4). Included in the final GPA presented for graduation may be no more than one grade of D+ or below in each of the academic areas listed under "Grades."
Academic probation results when the semester or cumulative GPA is below 2.00.
If any student is placed on probation or receives grades of D+ or below, the Academic Review Committee will make recommendations about help and remedial work which will make it possible for the student to achieve better academic performance. If a student has received two or more grades of D+ or below in any one academic area defined under "Grades," the committee will decide which course may count towards graduation and which must be repeated. A student repeating a course must register for the course a second time. If any course to be repeated is a prerequisite to another course, the other course may not be taken until the prerequisite course is satisfactorily repeated.
At the end of the second year, students are required to pass a competency examination in preparation for the course V680 Introduction to Clinic. A student who fails the competency examination must complete remediation and take the examination again. If the student fails any part of the competency twice, the student must petition the Academic Review Committee in a timely way for permission to retake it a third time. The chair of competency examinations will then consult with faculty and make a written recommendation to the Academic Review Committee. A student who fails it three times will be ineligible to continue.
In the event that an intern receives a D grade in any clinical rotation in the third or fourth professional year, the clinic faculty will offer a remedial program to assist the intern in addressing areas of weakness and improving clinical and/or didactic skills.
If an intern receives a second D grade in any third- or fourth-year clinic course, the student must accept remediation and must enroll in either V780 Clinical Skills Enhancement-3rd Year or V880 Clinical Skills Enhancement-4th Year. A student who fails to complete V780 or V880 with a grade of C- or better will be ineligible to continue.
Policies and procedures are explained in detail in the most recent Indiana University School of Optometry Eye Care Centers Student Orientation Manual.
National Board Requirement
Effective with the class that begins in 2001, students must pass Part I of the National Board of Examiners examination before being allowed to start their fourth-year clinical rotations. Failure to pass Part I will result in the student being placed on probation until it is passed. Failure to pass Part I after four attempts will result in dismissal from the School of Optometry.
Ineligible to Continue
A student is ineligible to continue when one or more of the following conditions hold:
- the student earns lower than a 1.00 GPA for any semester, regardless of cumulative GPA;
- the student earns both (a) lower than a 2.00 GPA in a semester and (b) lower than a 2.00 GPA in the following semester;
- the student's cumulative GPA after three semesters is lower than 2.00;
- the student has repeated a course and received a grade of D+ or below both times;
- the student has failed the clinical competency examination two times and is not permitted to take it a third time, or fails it a third time;
- the student fails a clinical course after remediation;
- the student has received consecutive grades of F for two rotations during the fourth year;
- the student has failed to complete the professional curriculum in six years;
- the student has failed to pass Part I of the National Board exam after four attempts and prior to the beginning of fourth-year clinical rotations.
These conditions indicate unsatisfactory progress and could result in automatic dismissal.
Dismissal and Reinstatement
A student dismissed for the first time may petition the Academic Review Committee for reinstatement without delay. If granted, the student will be expected to attain a minimum GPA of 2.00 in the first semester of reinstatement. A student whose petition has been denied may not petition for reinstatement until the lapse of at least one semester of a regular academic year.
A student who is dismissed for the second time may not petition for reinstatement until the lapse of at least one regular academic year. Depending on the circumstances, a dismissed student may be allowed to retake specific courses in which the previous grades were low, but unless officially reinstated to the curriculum, this student may not take courses that represent progress toward the degree. The Academic Review Committee may recommend additional conditions or restrictions to precede reinstatement of a student.
Academic integrity is fundamental to the intellectual life of the university and to the education of each student. The following acts of academic dishonesty are prohibited: cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, interference, and facilitating academic dishonesty. Proven academic misconduct is grounds for dismissal.
Maintaining standards of professional conduct is essential to the integrity of the profession. Professional misconduct is strictly prohibited. This includes dishonest conduct (including, but not limited to, false accusation of misconduct; forgery; alteration or misuse of any university document, record, or identification; and giving to a university official any information known to be false) and use or possession of alcoholic beverages or illegal drugs on university property or during a university activity.
In addition, fraud and patient endangerment and abandonment will be grounds for dismissal. Standards for patient care procedures and for professional behavior in a clinical setting are detailed in the most recent Indiana University School of Optometry Eye Care Centers Student Orientation Manual.
Additional rules and regulations of the university are available in the Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct published by Indiana University. It is each student's responsibility to be aware of these regulations. Violation of the Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct may result in dismissal.
Academic Fairness Committee
The Academic Fairness Committee is composed of three students and three faculty members, chosen by the dean of the School of Optometry. The charge of the committee is to consider, arbitrate, and adjudicate grading disputes in cases of procedural errors and in cases where evaluation on nonacademic grounds is alleged.
Issues dealing with substantive quality of the student's academic performance and involving intrinsic, professional, academic judgments by a faculty member lie outside the committee's jurisdiction.
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The number of credit hours given a course is indicated in parentheses following the course title. The abbreviation "P" refers to the course prerequisite(s). The abbreviation "C" refers to courses that are corequisite(s). Unless otherwise noted, the prerequisites for all courses include enrollment in the School of Optometry and permission of the instructor.
V511 Human Gross Anatomy (4 cr.) Regional study of anatomy using human specimens. Emphasizes head and neck, axilla, abdomen, and thorax.
V512 Ocular Anatomy (2 cr.) P: V511. A detailed study of the normal anatomy and embryology of the eye and its adnexa. The organization of the various components of the eye is studied at the light and electron microscopic level and this organization is related to the molecular structure where it is known.
V514 Neuroanatomy (1.5 cr.) P: V511. Functional anatomy of the human brain, with emphasis on the visual system.
V515 Medical and Ocular Biochemistry (4 cr.) Medical and biochemical principles that relate to understanding and treatment of disease.
V516 Ocular Physiology (2.5 cr.) C: V512. Vegetative physiology of the eye, with attention to the chemical constitution, intermediary metabolism, regulation of hydration and intraocular pressure, transparency of the ocular components, and retinal physiology.
V517 Histology (3 cr.) Microscopic anatomy of human cells, tissues, and organs.
V521 Geometric Optics I (3.5 cr.) Optics of lenses, prisms, and mirrors; properties of light.
V522 Geometric Optics II (3.5 cr.) P: V521. A continuation in the study of optics of lenses, prisms, and mirrors; properties of light.
V540 Ocular Microbiology I (1 cr.) Biology of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other organisms that infect ocular tissues. Host response to infections and epidemiology will be presented.
V542 Systemic Physio-Pharmacology I (4 cr.) P: V515. Integrated pharmacology and physiology of organ systems, including cellular-level activity and intercellular communication.
V543 General Pathology (5 cr.) P: V511 and V517. General concepts in inflammation, immunology, neoplasia. Infectious, genetic, systemic diseases and diseases of organs and systems studied.
V550 The Clinical Interview and Health History Taking (1 cr.) Introduction to interview techniques, health history content, and medical record documentation as applies to the optometric setting. The course will include optometric and medical terminology, interview techniques for special populations, legal aspects of medical records, and differential diagnosis of visual symptoms. Requirements include completion of outside health history assignments.
V551 Clinical Optometry I (2 cr.) Introduction to visual examination techniques and evaluation of results as they relate to subjective symptoms, visual performance, and health. Study of the principles involved in the measurement and treatment of ametropia, oculomotor imbalances, and associated conditions.
V553 Diagnostic Procedures I (3.5 cr.) P: V521. C: V543 and V551. Vision examination techniques, theory and application of instrumentation, and ocular diagnostic procedures.
V569 Selected Studies (elective, cr. arr.) Items of current scientific interest. Consideration given to student's special interests. May include writing of abstracts and reviews of current vision science literature. May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.
V578 Public Health Policy and the Optometric Profession (2 cr.) Introduction to the fundamentals and principles of public health and epidemiology; an overview of public and community health problems, planning, and care, with special attention to optometric and other visual aspects of variously identified segments of the community. Includes methods of epidemiological investigation and study design, plus considerations of quality, efficiency, economics, and regulation of vision and health care delivery and utilization.
V631 Ophthalmic Optics I (3 cr.) P: V521 and V522. Design and application of ophthalmic materials; study of the physical and optical characteristics of ophthalmic single vision and multifocal lens designs, ophthalmic prism, absorptive lenses, and the measurement and fitting of lenses and frames. Includes related laboratory exercises.
V632 Ophthalmic Optics II (2.5 cr.) P: V521 and V522. A continuation in the design and application of ophthalmic materials; study of the physical and optical characteristics of ophthalmic single vision and multifocal lens designs, ophthalmic prism, absorptive lenses, and the measurement and fitting of lenses and frames. Includes related laboratory exercises.
V633 Contact Lenses I (3 cr.) Theory and practice of contact lenses. Includes contact lens terminology, ocular anatomy and physiology as it applies to contact lens wear, general principles of lens materials, lens design, contact lens optics, lens care systems, the prefitting examination, basic fitting principles, and aftercare problems as they apply to contact lens practice.
V642 Systemic Physio-Pharmacology II (5 cr.) P: V542. Integrated pharmacology and physiology of organ systems, including blood, immune, digestive, renal, respiratory, circulatory, and central nervous systems.
V644 Ocular Disease I (3 cr.) P: V543. A detailed discussion of the signs, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and management of ocular diseases of the anterior segment.
V646 Ocular Pharmacology (3 cr.) P: V642. Medications used in treatment of ocular disease. Ocular effects of systemic medications.
V648 Neurophysiology of Vision (1 cr.) Introduction to the functional organization of the visual system and the physiological basis of vision. This course treats the visual system as a biological image processor to reveal how the structure and function of the retina and brain determine visual performance and constrain the quality of vision.
V652 Clinical Optometry II (2 cr.) P: V551. Introduction to visual examination techniques and evaluation of results as they relate to subjective symptoms, visual performance, and health. Principles involved in the measurement and treatment of ametropia, oculomotor imbalances, and associated conditions are studied.
V654 Diagnostic Procedures II (3.5 cr.) P: V553, V543, V551. C: V642 and V652. Advanced diagnostic techniques stressing differential diagnosis, treatment, and appropriate interpretation. Emphasis on binocular vision examination techniques, theory, and application of instrumentation along with advanced disease detection.
V656 Diagnostic Procedures III (2 cr.) P: V553 and V654. C: V644 and V646. Advanced clinical analysis, procedures, and protocols for examinations of patients in the clinical setting, and comprehensive eye examinations with scheduled patients. Requirements include completion of outside practice examinations, clinical observations by arrangement, and the Clinical Competency Examination.
V663 Physiological Optics I: Visual Optics (3.5 cr.) P: V522. The eye as an optical instrument.
V664 Physiological Optics II: Visual Function (3 cr.) The basic aspects of monocular vision, including light and dark adaptation, color vision, and both spatial and temporal resolution. The science of measuring visual performance and its application to clinical optometry.
V665 Physiological Optics III: Ocular Motility (2.5 cr.) Characteristics, control, and deficits of the five somatic eye-movement systems (convergence, saccadic version, pursuit version, fixation maintenance, vestibular reflex) and the autonomic systems subserving accommodation and pupillary diameter and reflexes.
V666 Physiological Optics IV: Binocular Function (2 cr.) Binocular sensory mechanisms of vision. Summary of the geometry of 3-dimensional space and stereo vision, underlying neuroanatomy and physiology of binocular vision, prerequisites for normal stereopsis, and commonly encountered anomalies of binocular vision.
V670 Epidemiology and Biostatistics for Optometry (1 cr.) Introduction to Epidemiology and Biostatistics, principles of epidemiological inquiry and research design, and the application of statistical methods to clinical data.
V680 Introduction to Clinic (2.5 cr.) P: V551, V553, V631, V632, V633, V643, V644, V652, V654, V656, and a passing score on the Clinical Competency Examination in V656. Introduction to clinical practice in visual analysis, optometric procedures, case conference; discussion and patient care for three 40-hour weeks during the summer, or the equivalent by arrangement.
V713 Ocular Microbiology II (2 cr.) P: V540. Morphology, physiology, identification of the microflora of the anterior segment of the eye and adnexa. Culture and sensitivity testing procedures. Clinical manifestations of microorganisms of the eye and ocular adnexa.
V745 Ocular Disease II (3 cr.) P: V644. A detailed discussion of the signs, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and management of ocular diseases of the posterior segment.
V746 Ocular Disease III (Neuro-Optometry) (2 cr.) P: V745. A detailed discussion of the signs, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and management of neurological diseases affecting the eye.
V748 Principles and Methods of Physical Assessment and Medicine (3 cr.) P: V680 or comparable clinical experience. Comprehensive health history, physical examination with emphasis on HEENT and neurological screening, and their relationship to ocular health conditions and medical management; clinical chemistry and interpretation of clinical laboratory tests; criteria for referral to other providers; principles of CPR and emergency office procedures.
V749 Applied Ocular Therapeutics (3 cr.) P: V646, V754. The use, in clinical optometric practice, of legend drugs, lasers, and other therapeutic devices in the treatment and management of ocular disease.
V751 Low Vision and Rehabilitation (1 cr.) P: V652 and V654. Special examination procedures and patient management techniques for the visually impaired. Evaluations and prescriptions of optical, nonoptical, and electronic devices. Overview of rehabilitative services.
V752 Contact Lenses II (3 cr.) P: V633. Applications of contact lenses. This course covers the fitting and care of patients requiring specialty contact lenses and more difficult cases including, but not limited to, correcting astigmatism, tinted and cosmetic lenses, fitting the presbyopic patient, fitting infants and children, fitting keratoconic patients, fitting postsurgical and other distorted corneas, haptic lenses, cosmetic shells, and prosthetic eyes.
V753 Optometric Gerontology and Geriatrics (1 cr.) The purpose of the course is to impart knowledge and understanding fundamental to comprehensive and primary vision care of older adults. Discussions will include the functional consequences of vision and aging, interdisciplinary aspects of care and community resources.
V755 Basic Visual Therapy (3 cr.) Diagnosis, prognosis, and orthoptic treatment of anomalies of binocular vision, including the optical, motor, sensory, integrative, and perceptual systems.
V756 Clinical Assessment I (2 cr.) P: V680. C: V745. Introduction to clinical reasoning and formulation of differential diagnostic protocols for investigation of various visual problems.
V757 Clinical Assessment II (1 cr.) P: V756. A continuation in the clinical reasoning and formulation of differential diagnostic protocols for investigation of various visual problems.
V758 Advanced Visual Therapy (elective, 2 cr.) Advanced levels of topics dealt with in V755 Basic Visual Therapy.
V774 Socioeconomic Aspects of Optometry (2 cr.) Optometry education; prevalence of visual anomalies; care of the blind, near-blind, and low-income groups; vision cults and propaganda; optometric careers; practice management.
V775 Legal and Professional Aspects of Optometry (2 cr.) Legal, ethical, and professional concerns of optometric practice, including legal decision making, the regulatory role of government and administrative agencies, licensing procedures, professional liability and malpractice, ethical considerations and the legal rights of patients in optometric practice.
V780 Clinical Skills Enhancement-3rd year (2 cr.) Increased supervision provided by clinical faculty for students having difficulty in areas of clinical performance.
V781 Pediatric Optometry (1.5 cr.) P: V755. Specialized diagnosis and management strategies for the infant and child. Topics to include refractive and binocular vision anomalies, disease, and pharmacology.
V782 Visual Perception and Learning Disabilities (1.5 cr.) P: V755. Optometrist's role in assessment and management of visual perception, learning disabilities, and reading problems. Communication with parents, educators, and other professionals will be emphasized.
V786 Optometry Clinic (2 cr.) P: V680. Clinical practice in visual analysis, patient care, and optometric procedures. Case discussion and student evaluation on a daily basis. Patient care includes assisting patients with selection of suitable eye wear.
V787 Optometry Clinic (2 cr.) P: V786. A continuation of V786. Clinical practice in visual analysis, patient care, and optometric procedures. Case discussion and student evaluation on a daily basis. Patient care includes assisting patients with selection of suitable eye wear.
V788 Optometry Clinic (2 cr.) P: V787. Clinical practice in visual analysis, patient care, and optometric procedures. Case discussion and student evaluation on a daily basis, case presentation by student interns. Patient care includes assisting patients with selection of suitable eye wear.
V789 Optometry Clinic (2 cr.) P: V788. Continuation of V788. Clinical practice in visual analysis, patient care, and optometric procedures. Case discussion and student evaluation on a daily basis, case presentation by student interns. Patient care includes assisting patients with selection of suitable eye wear.
V880 Clinical Skills Enhancement-4th year (5 cr.) Increased supervision provided by clinical faculty for students having difficulty in areas of clinical performance.
V884 Optometry Clinic-Arranged (5 cr.) P: V680, V786, V787, V788, and V789, as well as completion of all lecture and laboratory courses through the third professional year of study. Advanced clinical optometric training with emphasis on optometric specialties such as contact lens care, ocular disease diagnosis/ management, binocular vision analysis/therapy, and pediatrics.
V885 Optometry Clinic (10 cr.)8 P: V680, V786, V787, V788, and V789, as well as completion of all lecture and laboratory courses through the third professional year of study. Advanced clinical optometric training with emphasis on optometric specialties such as contact lens care, ocular disease diagnosis/ management, binocular vision analysis/ therapy, and pediatrics.
V887 Extension Clinic (10 cr.)8 P: V680, V786, V787, V788, and V789, as well as completion of all lecture and laboratory courses through the third professional year of study. An intensive, hands-on patient care experience at a large urban optometry clinic in Indianapolis. Includes experience in primary care as well as specialty services.
V888 External Clinic (10 cr.)8 P: V680, V786, V787, V788, and V789, as well as completion of all lecture and laboratory courses through the third professional year of study. An intensive, hands-on patient care experience at an affiliated external clinical site such as a military hospital, Veterans Administration medical facility, or referral eye center.
V889 Special Projects (2 cr.) Research and writing of a paper in a style suitable for publication in a scientific journal.
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Graduation with Honors
The Doctor of Optometry degree is awarded with honors to students who have demonstrated laudatory scholarship in their professional studies. Similarly, the Bachelor of Science in Optometry degree is granted with distinction. The specific honor is noted on the graduate's diploma. The cumulative grade point averages and the corresponding citations are 3.70, with honors; 3.80, with high honors; 3.90, with highest honors. Corresponding levels prevail for the B.S. and B.A. degrees.
Awards and Recognitions
Each year, many awards are presented to School of Optometry students. Periodically, students will receive notices regarding eligibility and application deadlines. Inquiries should be directed to the School of Optometry's Office of Student Administration or to the faculty chairperson of the Awards and Honors Committee. It is especially important for students to explore grants, scholarships, or other financial support available from their home states.
The following list describes a representative sample of the awards; it should be noted, however, that the actual list of awards may vary from year to year and that not all awards are automatically presented each year. The awards are listed according to eligibility categories.
First-Year O.D. Students
G.K. Optical, Duffens Optical, Diversified Ophthalmics, and Walman Optical: Student Indiana Optometric Association Awards
Indiana Affiliate of the American Foundation for Vision Awareness: Jane Hofstetter Award
Third-Year O.D. Students
Indiana University Bloomington: Chancellor's Scholar
Jack W. Bennett, O.D., Humanitarian Award
Kentucky Optometric Foundation Scholarship
Varilux Student Grant Award
Vision Service Plan Scholarships
Wal-Mart Optical Division Educational Scholarship
Fourth-Year O.D. Students
Alcon Scholarship Award
Bausch and Lomb: Great Start Award
Beta Sigma Kappa: Silver Medal Award
Corning Low Vision Award
David H. Kolack, O.D., Award
Designs for Vision, Inc.: William Feinbloom Low Vision Award
Essilor Corneal Reflection Pupilometer Award
Indiana Chapter of the American Academy of Optometry: John P. Davey Memorial Award and Roy E. Denny Award
Indiana University Optometric Student Association Past President's Award
Jack W. Bennett, O.D., Humanitarian Award
Marchon Eyewear Practice Management Award
Rigid Gas Permeable Lens Institute Award
Vistakon: Dr. Henry Hofstetter Scholarship Award
Vistakon: Excellence Award
Wal-Mart Optical Division Educational Scholarship
Competitions and Grants
American Optometric Association: Dr. Seymour Galina Grant
American Optometric Association: Student Leadership Award
American Optometric Foundation: Corning Scholarship
American Optometric Foundation: Dr. Gary Gross Scholarship Award
American Optometric Foundation: O.P. "Pete" Lyman Jr. Scholarship
American Optometric Student Association/CIBA Vision Future Leadership Grant
American Public Health Association: Vision Care Outstanding Student Award
Beta Sigma Kappa Research Grant
Heart of America Contact Lens Society
IU Chapter of the National Optometric Student Association: Outstanding Student Award
Optometric Extension Program Foundation: Senior Students and Recent Graduate Research Grant Program
Many state affiliates of the American Foundation for Vision Awareness offer scholarships to students who are residents of that state. In addition to the awards listed here, scholarships, fellowships, and loans are available through the School of Optometry's financial aid administrator.
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The principal organizations open to, and governed by, students in the School of Optometry are the following:
Indiana University Optometric Student Association (IUOSA)
All optometry students are eligible for membership in the IUOSA, which is affiliated with the American Optometric Student Association. The association is active in current student affairs, sponsors social events, and provides suggestions and assistance to the dean and faculty.
Indiana University National Optometric Student Association (NOSA)
The IU membership of NOSA comprises representatives of minority groups among the student body. The local chapter is a student affiliate of the National Optometric Association. The association sponsors an awards ceremony each year and aids the school in a variety of ways.
Beta Sigma Kappa
A chapter of this international honorary optometric society was established at Indiana University in 1983. The organization is open to optometry students with outstanding scholastic achievements and is dedicated to research and exemplary optometric practice.
Student Volunteer Optometric Services to Humanity (SVOSH)
This organization provides eye care to individuals, usually in developing countries, who are otherwise unable to obtain this care for themselves. SVOSH collects and catalogs used eyeglasses, which are then distributed during an eye-care trip to an area of need.
Fellowship of Christian Optometrists
FCO is an organization that promotes, furthers, and maintains Christian fellowship among optometry students. Activities include discussions of current topics of interest led by guest speakers, the establishment of an ongoing eye clinic at an overseas mission, and screening missions to Third World countries.
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In order to apply for federal financial assistance, students need to file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) between January 1 and March 1 each year. They may also file after March 1, but may not be considered for all the aid possible, depending on funding. Students may file the FAFSA at the Web site www.fafsa.ed.gov.
In order to be eligible for federal financial aid, a student must:
- be a U.S. citizen or eligible non-citizen
- have a valid social security number
- register with the Selective Service, if required
- not be in default or owe an overpayment on previous federal aid
- be admitted to an IU degree program
- make satisfactory academic progress
More information on eligibility requirements, the application process, and specific financial aid programs can be found at the Web site www.indiana.edu/~sfa.
Financing an optometric education can be a long-term investment if a student needs to borrow money. Students must understand the implications of receiving student loans, such as the obligation to repay them with interest once they obtain their degrees. There are several student loan programs available to doctoral optometric students:
- Federal Subsidized Stafford/Ford Direct Loan
- Federal Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Direct Loan
- Federal Perkins Loan
- Federal Health Professions Loan (students must provide parent data on the FAFSA to be considered for this loan)
There are other sources for loans (along with state and association assistance programs) that students can fully research to obtain funding. Information can be obtained from the American Optometric Association as well as from local and state optometric associations.
Other federal aid programs include Federal Work-Study, Veterans Benefits, and Military Health Professions scholarships. In addition, other options include:
- School of Optometry Emergency Assistance Program
- Teaching Assistantships
- IU Emergency Loans
- Educational Opportunity Fellowships
- Graduate Minority Fellowships
- Diversity Enhancement Fee Scholarships
- Wildermuth Fee Scholarships
Other scholarships and awards through the School of Optometry are listed in the "Student Honors and Awards
" section in this bulletin. Applications and information about these programs can be obtained from the Office of Student Administration.
Financial Aid Contact
Please contact Melanie Turner, School of Optometry financial aid administrator, with questions or concerns at School of Optometry, 800 E. Atwater Avenue, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-3680; (812) 856-4478; e-mail email@example.com. She is available on Tuesdays and Fridays for in-person appointments. Information regarding other sources of financial aid is available on the School of Optometry's Web site at www.opt.indiana.edu/admis/fa.htm.
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1 A minimum of two courses is required.
2 A minimum SAT Verbal score of 670 or ACT English score of 32 will exempt the student (without credit) from the requirements. Other means of completing the composition requirement exist. Consult the College of Arts and Sciences Bulletin for details on these options.
3 A minimum of two courses is required. This requirement for a Bachelor of Science in Optometry may be met by placement examination. Students who have completed two or more years of a single foreign language in high school with an average grade of C or above, or have completed a bachelor's degree at another institution, are exempt from this requirement. (Note: Variation exists among academic divisions of the university in basic foreign language requirements and exemption policies. For a bachelor's degree from the College of Arts and Sciences, or from another division of the university, consult the appropriate bulletin for foreign language statements.)
4 A minimum of two courses is required. For departments in this area, consult the College of Arts and Sciences Bulletin.
5 Students in the final year of the program will spend 12 weeks at each of their four clinic assignments (V885, V887, V888, and the Fourth Clinical Assignment). Three of these four assignments are at various external locations.
6 Elementary school vision-screening program assignments will be arranged.
7 Students in the final year of the program will spend 12 weeks at each of their four clinic assignments (V885, V887, V888, and the Fourth Clinical Assignment). Three of these four assignments are at various external locations.
8 V885, V887, and V888 may be taken in nonsequential order.